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Web Design Basics

R Proffitt
by Richard Proffitt
iopan design

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Start Learning HTML & CSS

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Creating a Web Page

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HTML Fundamentals

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) describes the structure of web pages. The language is comprised of letters or words (called Elements) written within brackets (called tags). Most of the elements in HTML are written using pairs of tags: opening and closing. However, some elements use single tags - the element that calls images to be shown, the <img> tag is one such example.

Note in the coding sample below how some basic elements are written:

<h1>Title of Web Page</h1>
<p>A short paragraph providing an introduction. Paragraphs are placed within the 'p' tag.</p>
<img src="images/logo.png" alt="logo">

In the first line, we use the 'heading' tag; a first level heading is written thus: <h1>......</h1>. See how the closing tag is the same as the opening tag, except that it starts with a forward slash:/.

Here is an important thing to remember: Tags cannot cross over one another. So a tag must be CLOSED before another tag is opened. Of course, this doesn't apply to the use of single tags, which are self-closing. You will see in later examples that elements may be NESTED within each other, you may use multiple nested tags in fact, as long as you remember to close each tag correctly.

Going back to the coding sample above, see how the second element, the <p>......</p> tag is opened and closed in the same way, with the content being the part that is printed on the screen. The 'p' stands for paragraph and where you use the paragraph tag, a new line of text will be started.

Finally, we have one of those single, self-closing elements: the image tag, <img>. As you can see, there are two new features in the image tag: src and alt each followed by some content in quotation marks. These are called ATTRIBUTES of the image element. The function of attributes are to give more information about the element. In this case, the source attribute shows the address of the image file: src="images/logo.png" and the 'alternative text' attribute gives an alternative description of the image to those who cannot see the image (to screen readers for the visually impaired, or to show in case the image cannot be loaded).

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Headers, Titles & Paragraphs

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Lists & Links

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Navigation

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Fusce in augue

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<div class="logo-footer-cont">
  <a href="index.html">
     <img class="logo-footer" src="images/logo-footer.png" alt="logo">
  </a>
</div>

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Websites should look good from the inside and out.

Paul Cookson

Some Basic Styling Using CSS

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