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Responsive Web Design

Techniques, Terms & Tools

R Proffitt
by Richard Proffitt
iopan design

Responsive web design (RWD) is an approach to web design which makes web pages render at their best on a variety of devices or screen sizes. Content, design and performance are necessary across all devices to ensure good usability and viewer satisfaction. This article looks at general and specific web design terms, RWD tecniques and some useful RWD tools that will help you to get up to speed with your own Responsive Web Design.

In the first section, the Glossary of Terms, you'll find not only the buzz-words of RWD, but a whole lexicon of general web design words with short descriptions. In the second section there is a list of common RWD techniques and finally; a list of free tools. Whilst I have tried to provide some of the most popular and useful tools out there, this list is by no means ‘complete’ as there are very many more available to the web designer. I hope merely to have covered a sample of tools for the main aspects of RWD and with the speed at which web design progresses, you can bet there shall be yet more terms, techniques and tools to come.


Glossary of Terms

A
ACCESSIBILITY

This is the ability of a website to be used by people with disabilities, including visually impaired visitors using screen readers, hearing impaired visitors using no sound, color blind people, visitors with poor dexterity, those with poor cognative function, people who may use the keyboad to navigate and people with other disabilities. Accessibility is an important aspect to consider when designing any site.

AJAX

Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is typically used for creating dynamic web applications and allows for asynchronous data retrieval without having to reload the page a visitor is on. The JavaScript on a given page handles most of the basic functions of the application.

B
BACK END

The back end of a website is the part hidden from view of regular website visitors. The back end generally includes the information structure, applications, and the CMS controlling content on the site.

BACKLINK

Backlinks are links from other sites back to your own. They’re sometimes also referred to as “trackbacks” (especially on blogs). Backlinks have a huge impact on your sites search rankings. Lots of backlinks from high-ranking sites can greatly improve your search engine results.

BAD NEIGHBORHOOD

A “bad neighborhood” refers to the server where your site is hosted. A site hosted on a server that hosts other sites that spam or use black-hat SEO practices can end up penalized by search engines solely because of their proximity to those sites. Be very careful about which web host you choose, what their terms of service are, and how strictly they enforce those terms if you want to avoid being penalized.

BELOW THE FOLD

This term is a carry-over from newspaper publishing days. In newspaper terms, “below the fold” means content was on the bottom half of the page (below the physical fold in the paper). In web design terms, “below the fold” refers to the content that is generally going to be below the point first viewable to the average website visitor in their browser (in other words, viewers would have to scroll down to see any more content).

BOUNCE RATE

A website’s bounce rate is the percentage of people who leave the site from the same page they entered the site, without clicking through to any other pages. This can be a good indicator of how good a website’s navigation is, as well as an indicator of the quality of the site’s content (a very high bounce rate is not good for either of those factors).

BREADCRUMBS

Breadcrumbs are the bits of navigation elements that generally appear near the top of a give web page that show you the pages and subpages the appear before the page you’re on. For examples, on a blog, the breadcrumbs might look something like: Home > Category > Year > Month > Post. The breadcrumbs term comes from the fairy tale “Hansel and Gretel.”

BROWSER

Browser refers to the program a website visitor is using to view the web site. Currently the most popular browsers include Safari, Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, and Internet Explorer. However, there are very many more browsers available, some of which are designed for specific tasks.

C
CACHE/CACHING

Cached files are those that are saved or copied (downloaded) by a web browser so that the next time that user visits the site, the page loads faster.

CASCADING STYLE SHEETS

Also referred to simply as CSS, Cascading Style Sheets are used to define the look and feel of a web site outside of the actual HTML file(s) of the site. In recent years, CSS has replaced tables and other HTML-based methods for formatting and laying out websites. The benefits to using CSS are many, but some of the most important are the simplification of a site’s HTML files and the ability to completely change the style of a site by changing just one CSS file.

CLIENT SIDE

Client-side refers to scripts that are run in a viewer’s browser, instead of on a web server (as in server-side scripts). Client-side scripts are generally faster to interact with, though they can take longer to load initially.

CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Also known as a CMS, the Content Management System is a backend tool for managing a site’s content that separates said content from the design and functionality of the site. Using a CMS generally makes it easier to change the design or function of a site (especially for non-designers).

COMMENT

In web design terms, a comment is a bit of information contained in a site’s HTML or XHTML files that is ignored by the browser. Comments are used to identify different parts of the file and as reference notes. There are different comment formats for different programming and markup languages.

CSS FRAMEWORK

A CSS framework is a collection of CSS files used as the starting point to make XHTML and CSS web sites quickly and painlessly. They usually contain CSS styles for typography and layout (Grid Systems).

D
DEPRECATED

Deprecated code is code that is no longer included in the language specifications. Generally this happens because it is replaced with more accessible or efficient alternatives.

DHTML

Stands for Dynamic HyperText Markup Language. DHTML fuses XHTML (or any other markup language), the DOM, JavaScript (or other scripts), and CSS (or other styling languages) to create interactive web content.

DITHER

In GIF and certain other image formats, there is a limited color palette used for each image. Because of this, not all colors in an image are presented. Dither is used to approximate these colors by combining pixels of different colors side by side.

DNS

Stands for Domain Name Service (alternately Domain Name System or Domain Name Server). It’s the thing that converts IP addresses into domain names. DNS servers are provided with the IP address of your web server when you assign your domain name to those servers. In turn, when someone types your domain name into their browser, those DNS servers translate the domain name to the IP address and point the browser to the correct server.

DOCTYPE

The doctype declaration specifies which version of HTML is used in a document. It has a direct effect on whether your HTML will validate.

DOM, THE

Stands for Document Object Model. It’s a language-indpendent, cross-platform convention for representing objects in XML, XHTML, and HTML documents. Rules for interacting with and programming the DOM are specified in the DOM API.

DOMAIN

The domain is the name by which a website is identified. The domain is associated with an IP address. Domains can be purchased with any combination of letters, hyphens (-), and numbers (though it can’t start with a hyphen). Depending on the extension (.com, .net, .org, etc.), a domain can be anywhere up to 26 to 63 characters long.

DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

E
E-COMMERCE

Short for electronic commerce. Buying and selling of goods online, through websites. Products sold through e-commerce can be physical products that require shipping, or digital products delivered electronically.

ELASTIC LAYOUT

An elastic layout is one that uses percentages and ems for widths paired with a max-width style to allow the site layout to stretch when font sizes are changed.

EM

Em is a unit of measurement for sizing fonts and other elements within a web page relative to the item’s parent element. A 1em font is equal to the point size for the font already defined in the parent element (2em would be twice the current size; .5em would be half the current size).

EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE

Otherwise known as XML. XML is a markup language used for writing custom markup languages. In other words, XML describes how to write new languages (it’s sometimes referred to as a “meta” language because of this). It also serves as a basic syntax that allows different kinds of computers and applications to share information without having to go through multiple conversion layers.

EXTERNAL STYLE SHEET

This is a CSS document that is written in a separate, external document. The biggest advantage to using an external style sheet is that it can be linked to by multiple HTML/XHTML files (which means changes made to the style sheet will effect all the pages linked to it without having to change each page individually).

F
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

G
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

H
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

I, J
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

K
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

L
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

M
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

N
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

O
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

P
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

R
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

S
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

T
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

U
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

V
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

W
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

X
DTD

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

img
Moving Content

Notice in the diagram how the content shifts about to fit to the available devices’ space. This is achieved with the use of CSS media queries and (usually) a CSS grid.

Some CSS grids are quite sophisticated and allow you to shift different content elements so that they can appear in a different order on different devices. This is managed by the use of ‘pull’ and ‘push’ commands.


Responsive Web Design Techniques

CSS Transitions and Media Queries

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Responsive Data Tables

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Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

Responsive Navigation Menus

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Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

Using Available Space Effectively

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Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

Responsive Images & Videos

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Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

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Responsive HTML Email

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Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.

Cras tellus enim, sagittis aer varius faucibus, molestie in dolor. Mauris molliadipisg elit, in vulputate est volutpat vitae. Pellentesque convallis nisl sit amet lacus luctus vel consequat ligula suscipit. Aliquam et metus sed tortor eleifend pretium non id urna. Fusce in augue leo, sed cursus nisl. Nullam vel tellus massa. Vivamus porttitor rutrum libero ac mattis. Aliquam congue malesuada mauris vitae dignissim.


Responsive Web Design Tools

Responsive Design Testing
Responsive Design Testing homepage

Responsive Web Design Testing Tool. This tool has been built to help with testing your responsive websites while you design and build them. You can enter your website's URL into the address bar at the top of the page (not your browser's address bar) to test a specific page.

Foundation by ZURB
Foundation homepage

Foundation is a responsive front-end framework. Foundation provides a responsive grid and HTML and CSS UI components, templates, and code snippets, including typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface elements, as well as optional functionality provided by JavaScript extensions. Foundation is maintained by ZURB and is an open source project.

Response.js
Response.js homepage

Response is an experimental jQuery plugin for building websites with responsive content. It can dynamically swap content based on breakpoints and data attributes.

Response's most powerful feature is breakpoint sets. Using the sets, content for more-capable devices and/or larger viewports can be stored in HTML5 data attributes. Designers can create custom sets to make exactly the functionality that they want.

Style Prototype
Style Prototype homepage

One of the greatest challenges we all face in this era of responsive web design is achieving a balance between efficient workflow and effective client deliverables. It was with this in mind that the Style Prototype was born.

In a nutshell, the goal of a Style Prototype is to allow a client to get a visual summary of a site’s proposed design direction without the time investment of creating multiple pages of Photoshop comps or fully developing HTML pages. A style prototype is a single HTML page which outlines site colors, typography, photographic style, button styles, rollovers, and other necessary elements to establish design direction. In a sense, it is a safety measure intended to avoid rehashing (or completely scrapping) site designs in which hours of time and budget have been invested.

Icomoon
Icomoon homepage

IcoMoon is striving to build and provide the best iconography and icon management tool for perfectionists. IcoMoon's icon library features only the very best icon sets out there. All of our icons are designed on a precise pixel grid. The IcoMoon app lets you build and use your own icon packs in many different formats including SVG, Polymer, PDF, XAML, CSH, icon font or simple PNG/CSS sprites.

Bootstrap
Bootstrap homepage

Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end web framework for designing websites and web applications. It contains HTML- and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript extensions. Unlike many web frameworks, it concerns itself with front-end development only.

Webflow
Webflow homepage

Webflow is a professional drag and drop tool built for designing websites using responsive web design best practices. It’s a cloud-based software as a service (SaaS) that allows designers to build production-ready, responsive websites without any coding knowledge required. It allows designers to accomplish most aspects of web development and website distribution through a visual editor that provides the pixel-for-pixel design precision found in desktop graphic design applications such as Adobe Photoshop.

While designers use the tool, Webflow automatically generates W3C standards-compliant HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Based on Twitter's Bootstrap web development framework, Webflow's code is cross-device and cross-browser compatible.

UIPatterns
UIPatterns homepage

UI-Patterns.com is the work of Anders Toxboe – a Danish web developer seeking to categorize what has before seemed like ad hoc approaches to developing web applications.

By not only listing different ways of solving common design problems, but also rationalizing about how, when, and why such solutions should be used, it is the goal to create a tool that will help end feature debates, get a clear understanding of why we’re doing what we’re doing, and why we’re not doing what we’re not doing.

UI-Patterns.com is an attempt to over time create a library of such solutions to common problems. It is a personal project, but is extremely open to contributions.

Adobe Edge Inspect
Adobe Edge Inspect homepage

Edge Inspect, formerly Adobe Shadow, was developed as a way of quickly previewing a web design on mobile platforms without publishing the associated files to a server. It allows iOS and Android mobile devices to be paired to a computer, and each device will display the same site using its native render and presentation modes. Rather than previewing a site optimised for mobile viewing on a desktop machine, Edge Inspect sends the file to paired devices, where it is rendered and displayed. Code may be edited live, with changes being displayed on paired devices as they are made, and screenshots from all devices can be collected remotely from the computer that hosts the connection.

As of November 2015 Edge Inspect is no longer being actively developed.

FitVids
FitVids homepage

A lightweight, easy-to-use jQuery plugin for fluid width video embeds. FitVids automates the Intrinsic Ratio Method by Thierry Koblentz to achieve fluid width videos in your responsive web design.

The Data Visualisation Catalogue
The Data Visualisation Catalogue homepage

The Data Visualisation Catalogue is a project developed by Severino Ribecca to create a library of different information visualisation types.

Originally, this project was a way for me to develop my own knowledge of data visualisation and create a reference tool for me to use in the future for my own work. However, I felt it would also be beneficial to both designers and also anyone in a field that requires the use of data visualisation.

Although there have been a few attempts in the past to catalogue some of the established data visualisation methods, there is no website that is really comprehensive, detailed or helps you decide the right method for your needs.

Each visualisation method was added bit-by-bit, as I individually researched each method, to find the best way to explain how it works and what it is best suited for.

Boxy SVG Editor
Boxy SVG Editor homepage

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Atomic
Atomic homepage

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1140 Grid
1140 Grid homepage

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BrowserStack
BrowserStack homepage

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Mobitest
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Codepen
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Adaptive Images
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Wirefy
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Style Tiles
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This Is Responsive
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Sass
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Gridset
Gridset homepage

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Gumby
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Adobe Edge Reflow
Adobe Edge Reflow homepage

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Export Kit
Export Kit homepage

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UXpin
UXpin homepage

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Marvel
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Technology over technique produces emotionless design.

Daniel Mall

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img

Fusce in augue

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Nullam vel tellus

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